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有色金属合金的用途

发布:czllz 浏览:2040次

  A:有色金属中的铜是人类最早使用的金属材料之一。现代,有色金属及其合金已成为机械制造业、建筑业、电子工业、航空航天、核能利等领域不可缺少的结构材料和功能材料。

  B:实际应用中,通常将有色金属分为5类:

  ⒈轻金属。密度小于4500千克/立方米,如铝、镁、钾、钠、钙、锶、钡等。

  ⒉重金属。密度大于4500千克/米3,如铜、镍、钴、铅、锌、锡、锑、铋、镉、汞等。

  ⒊贵金属。价格比一般常用金属昂贵,地壳丰度低,提纯困难,如金、银及铂族金属。

  ⒋半金属。性质价于金属和非金属之间,如硅、硒、碲、砷、硼等。

  ⒌稀有金属。包括稀有轻金属,如锂、铷、铯等;

  稀有难熔金属,如钛、锆、钼、钨等;

  稀有分散金属,如镓、铟、锗、铊等;

  稀土金属,如钪、钇、镧系金属;

  放射性金属,如镭、钫、钋及阿系元素中的铀、钍等。

  有色金属通常指除去铁(有时也除去锰和铬)和铁基合金以外的所有金属。有色金属可分为四类:

  ⒈重金属:一般密度在4.5g/cm3以上,如铜、铅、锌等;

  ⒉轻金属:密度小(0.53~4.5g/cm3),化学性质活泼,如铝、镁等.

  ⒊贵金属:地壳中含量少,提取困难,价格较高,密度大,化学性质稳定,如金、银、铂等;

  ⒋稀有金属:如钨、钼、锗、锂、镧、铀等。

  由于稀有金属在现代工业中具有重要意义,有时也将它们从有色金属中划分出来,单独成为一类。而与黑色金属、有色金属并列,成为金属的三大类别。


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